tripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique. Open Access Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society <p><strong>tripleC: Communication, Capitalism &amp; Critique. Open Access Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society</strong> provides a forum to discuss the challenges humanity is facing in the capitalist information society today.</p> <p>It promotes contributions to critical media and communication studies following the highest standards of peer review.</p> <p>It is a journal that focuses on critical information society studies and critical studies of the roles of media, digital media, the Internet, information, communication and culture in society.<br><br>The journal disseminates articles that focus on the role of information and communication in contemporary capitalist societies. For this task, articles should employ critical theories and/or empirical research inspired by critical theories and/or philosophy and ethics guided by critical thinking as well as relate the analysis to power structures and inequalities of capitalism, especially forms of stratification such as class, racism and other ideologies, and capitalist patriarchy.</p> <p>Papers should reflect on how the presented findings contribute to the illumination of conditions that foster or hinder the advancement of a global sustainable and participatory information society.</p> <p>It is the journal´s mission to encourage uncommon sense, fresh perspectives and unconventional ideas, and connect leading thinkers and young scholars in inspiring reflections.</p> <p><strong>tripleC</strong> is a transdisciplinary journal that is open to contributions that critically and with a focus on power structures analyze the role of cognition, communication, information, media, digital media, the Internet, culture and communication in the information society.</p> <p>We are especially interested in how analyses relate to normative, political and critical dimensions of the information society and how they help illuminating conditions that foster or hinder the advancement of a global sustainable, inclusive and participatory information society.</p> <p>For more details please visit our <a href="/index.php/tripleC/about/editorialPolicies#focusAndScope">Focus and Scope</a>.</p> <p><br><strong>Follow the journal and updates on Facebook:</strong><br><a href=""></a></p> en-US <p><strong>tripleC</strong> is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal (ISSN: 1726-670X). All journal content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Austria License</a>.</p> (Prof Christian Fuchs) (Christian Fuchs) Fri, 05 Jan 2018 10:36:20 +0100 OJS 60 Radical Documentaries, Neoliberal Crisis and Post-Democracy <p>This article examines radical documentaries in Greece as a response to neoliberal crisis and post democracy. In a context where mainstream media have made themselves irrelevant, facing historical lows in trust and credibility, we found that radical documentaries have emerged outside the commodification of information and form part of the growing social or solidarity economy in Greece. Our analysis shows that these documentaries operate through a different political economy, that involves collaborative practices and that they are firmly oriented towards society rather than the political sphere. Overall, we found that radical documentaries are seeking to recuperate the media through engaging professional media workers, journalists, film directors, academics and actors; they operate through reclaiming media know-how; through radicalizing the financing, production and distribution by refusing to participate in commodification processes; and through recreating commonalities by thematizing the common, the public, and responsibility towards others.Their specific political role is found to be one of helping to restore the social body and to contribute to processes of commoning, whereby solidarity and social trust is recovered.</p> Eugenia Siapera, Lambrini Papadopoulou ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 21 Dec 2017 16:04:04 +0100 Smileys Without Borders. A Critique of Transboundary Interaction Between Politicians, Journalists and PR practitioners on Social Media <p>The purpose of the article is to contribute a critical theoretical understanding of cross-professional relations on social media, focusing on politicians, journalists and PR practitioners. It is well known that these professional groups establish personal and close relations in offline contexts, but more attention needs to be paid to the role of social media. Here, it is argued that, in the context of digital media use, semi-private chatting, humor, and mutual acknowledgment, including the use of likes, smileys, heart symbols, etc. are evidence of a 'neoliberalization' of cross-professional relations. The underlying idea is that the common practice of self-branding undermines representations of professional belonging and exacerbates the blurring of professional boundaries. The critical conceptualization of such 'transboundary' interaction between politicians, journalists and PR practitioners, which is guided by a cultural materialist approach, includes the presentation of examples deriving from the Swedish Twittersphere, and suggestions for empirical research.</p> Peter Berglez ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 08 Jan 2018 13:06:23 +0100 News Satire: Giving the News a Memory <p class="p1">It is claimed that journalism is facing a far-reaching crisis, with mainstream news becoming ever less independent and informative, and therefore less trusted by publics. In re-sponse to this journalistic crisis, what has been termed the “fifth estate” – news satire – has flourished globally in recent years. A fertile area of scholarship has sprung up around it, arguing that it plays an important role in contemporary democracy. This article aims to contribute to these debates around the social functions of both news and news satire by bringing questions of memory and forgetting to these discussions. Firstly, it argues that, linked to acceleration under capitalism, news is a key site of the production of amnesia, and that this media amnesia has ideological outcomes. Secondly, it shows how television news satires both critique and attempt to make sense of the news, and to some extent counter the amnesiac tendencies of news by <em>giving it a memory</em>. In doing this, to some extent news satires thus resist the ideolog-ical work performed by news-forgetting along multiple dimensions. The article explores five memory practices in two news satires: <em>The Daily Show </em>(US) and <em>Newswipe </em>(UK).</p> Laura Basu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 05 Feb 2018 12:27:51 +0100 Reflections on Luis Suarez-Villa’s Corporate Power, Oligopolies and the Crisis of the State Book review of Luis Suarez-Villa’s <em>Corporate Power, Oligopolies and the Crisis of the State</em> (20Book review of Luis Suarez-Villa’s <em>Corporate Power, Oligopolies and the Crisis of the State</em> (2015). State University of New York, ISBN: 978-1-4384-5485-6.15) Dmitry Vladimirovich Burakov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Jan 2018 10:22:20 +0100 BOOK REVIEW: Ian Parker. 2017. Revolutionary Keywords for A New Left. Winchester and Washington: Zero books [ISBN: 978-1-78535-642-1] <span><span class="m_-5548140752151722670SpellE">Eyal</span><span><span> Clyne reviews </span><span><span>Ian Parker's "</span><span>Revolutionary Keywords for A New Left", </span><span><span> a book that </span></span></span></span></span><span>unlocks complex Left-struggle issues in short and accessible essays.</span> Eyal Z Clyne ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 17 Jan 2018 10:18:58 +0100 Academic Labour, Digital Media and Capitalism (Combined PDF of all articles) Combined pdf of all articles published in the special issue "Academic Labour, Digital Media and Capitalism", edited by Thomas Allmer and Ergin Bulut, <em>tripleC: Communication, Capitalism &amp; Critique</em> 16 (1), 2018, pp. 44-240<br /> Thomas Allmer, Ergin Bulut ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 27 Jan 2018 16:04:48 +0100 Introduction: Academic Labour, Digital Media and Capitalism The overall task of this special issue of <em>tripleC: Communication, Capitalism &amp; Critique</em> is to gather critical contributions examining universities, academic labour, digital media and capitalism. The articles collected in this special issue (1) provide the context, history and theoretical concepts underlying academic labour, (2) analyse the relationship between academic work and digital media/new information and communication technologies/the Internet/social media, and (3) discuss the political potentials and challenges within and beyond higher education institutions. Thomas Allmer, Ergin Bulut ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Jan 2018 10:00:00 +0100 Theorising and Analysing Academic Labour <!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:Arial; panose-1:2 11 6 4 2 2 2 2 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536859905 -1073711037 9 0 511 0;} @font-face {font-family:"Cambria Math"; panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:1; mso-generic-font-family:roman; mso-font-format:other; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:0 0 0 0 0 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-name:"Normal\,Standard Text"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; text-indent:14.2pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial",sans-serif; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:DE;} p.Abstract, li.Abstract, div.Abstract {mso-style-name:Abstract; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0cm; text-align:justify; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Arial",sans-serif; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:DE;} .MsoChpDefault {mso-style-type:export-only; mso-default-props:yes; font-size:10.0pt; mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} @page WordSection1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 72.0pt 72.0pt 72.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} --> <p class="Abstract">The aim of this article is to contextualise universities historically within capitalism and to analyse academic labour and the deployment of digital media theoretically and critically. It argues that the post-war expansion of the university can be considered as medium and outcome of informational capitalism and as a dialectical development of social achievement and advanced commodification. The article strives to identify the class position of academic workers, introduces the distinction between academic work and labour, discusses the connection between academic, information and cultural work, and suggests a broad definition of university labour. It presents a theoretical model of working conditions that helps to systematically analyse the academic labour process and to provide an overview of working conditions at universities. The paper furthermore argues for the need to consider the development of education technologies as a dialectics of continuity and discontinuity, discusses the changing nature of the forces and relations of production, and the impact on the working conditions of academics in the digital university. Based on Erik Olin Wright’s inclusive approach of social transformation, the article concludes with the need to bring together anarchist, social democratic and revolutionary strategies for establishing a socialist university in a commons-based information society.</p> Thomas Allmer ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Jan 2018 10:30:29 +0100 University Transformations and the New Knowledge Production Regime in Informational Capitalism This article examines undergoing transformations in universities in the context of the structural crisis of capitalism, which began more than 40 years ago. This crisis is at the heart of one of the main contradictions of capitalism: while capital needs living labour to produce value, the dynamic of accumulation requires the replacement of human labour by machines. We will show how capital attempts to overcome this contradiction by modifying the nature of knowledge, learning institutions and human beings to turn them into productive investments, whose profitability can be measured. The contemporary mutations of universities are linked to the globalization, financialization and commodification of knowledge. We also observe transformations in universities’ institutional arrangements and in individual human consciousness. Our perspective combines institutionalist political economy and Marxian critique of value, showing how material, institutional and cultural transformations are dialectically articulated in a new form of social regulation. We will show how there is a complementarity between the transformations of political, economic and learning institutions and their linkage with a new mode of knowledge production. The general goal being that advanced mastery of knowledge and information will increase the efficiency of the technological and economic system and its endless acceleration. Maxime Ouellet, Éric Martin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Jan 2018 11:07:49 +0100 On the Alienation of Academic Labour and the Possibilities for Mass Intellectuality <div class="WordSection1"><p class="TitelText">As one response to the secular crisis of capitalism, higher education is being proletarianised. Its academics and students, increasingly encumbered by precarious employment, debt, and new levels of performance management, are shorn of autonomy beyond the sale of their labour-power. Incrementally, the labour of those academics and students is subsumed and re-engineered for value production, and is prey to the twin processes of financialisation and marketisation. At the core of understanding the impact of these processes and their relationships to the reproduction of higher education is the alienated labour of the academic. The article examines the role of alienated labour in academic work in its relationship to the proletarianisation of the University, and relates this to feelings of hopelessness, in order to ask what might be done differently. The argument centres on the role of mass intellectuality, or socially-useful knowledge and knowing, as a potential moment for overcoming alienated labour.</p></div> Richard Hall ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Jan 2018 11:29:39 +0100 Professing Contradictions: Knowledge Work and the Neoliberal Condition of Academic Workers In this paper, we will provide an interpretation of the condition of academic labor, which is understood as a particular kind of knowledge work and labor. Our objective is to explore the contradictory condition of academics in terms of class position, production of value and subjectivity, showing both its idiosyncrasies as well as its alignment with the broader experience of working in current post-Fordist capitalism. First, paying particular attention to the US media and communication departments that develop critical cultural scholarship, we reflect on the unresolved<em> impasse</em> deriving from the distinction of mental and manual labor. Second, we describe this profession as being characterized by a contradictory class location and a valorization that relies on a continuous negotiation for better exchange rate between intellectual and financial capital. Third, we consider how such a context subjectively translates in an ever-resolved condition of ‘employability,’ which comprises vocational aspects and the necessity dictated by the hope to reach stability and recognition. Marco Briziarelli, Joseph L. Flores ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Jan 2018 11:41:32 +0100 Digital Labour in the University: Understanding the Transformations of Academic Work in the UK Universities have been the site of a variety of shifts and transformations in the previous few decades. Both the composition of students and academics are changing (to a lesser or greater extent), along with the ways in which teaching and research is supported, conducted, and delivered. The effects of neoliberalism, privatisation, precarious employment, debt, and digitalisation have been highlighted as important factors in understanding these changes. However, the ways in which these tendencies are expressed in universities – both in specific and general ways – remain fragmented and under-analysed. In particular, the role of academic labour processes, increasingly mediated through digital technology, remains in the background. There is a risk of viewing these transformations as abstracted, far removed from the day-to-day activities of academic labour on which universities rely. This article will therefore focus on connecting the broader changes in funding, organisation, and digital technology to the labour processes of academics. Rather than seeking a return to a romanticised pre-neoliberal university, this article explores the possibilities of resistance and alternatives to the university as it is now. Jamie Woodcock ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Jan 2018 11:50:31 +0100 Academic/Digital Work: ICTs, Knowledge Capital, and the Question of Educational Quality The ideology of the information society has transformed the performance of academic duties within higher education through the permeation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) into all aspects of the university. These technologies provide a common ground upon which teaching, research, and administration fuse; but how have such arrangements affected the quality of academic work? This ideology functions through values, hierarchies, rewards and punishments, and surveillance that influence routine work. Using a critical orientation, this paper examines the transformation of the quality of the intellectual products and work processes of higher education in a North American context. It examines how the educational technology industry fosters a type of control over academic workers, inhibiting the individual laborer’s pursuit of educational quality. Grounded in Foucault’s concept of “disciplinary power” and in Freire’s notions of critical consciousness, it suggests a community-centered approach toward building knowledge capital in higher education. Jan Fernback ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Jan 2018 12:30:57 +0100 Manual Labour, Intellectual Labour and Digital (Academic) Labour. The Practice/Theory Debate in the Digital Humanities Although it hasn’t much been considered as such, the Digital Humanities movements (or at least the most theoretically informed parts of it) offers a critique “from within” of the recent mutation of the higher education and research systems. This paper offers an analysis, from a Critical Theory perspective, of a key element of this critique: the theory vs. practice debate, which, in the Digital Humanities, is translated into the famous “hack” versus “yack” motto, where DHers usually call for the pre-eminence of the former over the latter. I show how this debate aims to criticize the social situation of employment in academia in the digital age and can further be interpreted with the <em>Cultural industry</em> theoretical concept, as a continuance of the domination of the intellectual labour (ie. yack in this case) over the manual labour (hack). Nevertheless, I argue that, pushing this debate to its very dialectical limit in the post-industrial academic labour situation, one realizes that the two terms aren’t in opposition anymore: the actual theory as well as the actual practice are below their very critical concepts in the academic labour. Therefore, I call for a reconfiguration of this debate, aiming at the rediscovering of an actual theory in the academic production, as well as a rediscovering of a <em>praxis</em>, the latter being outside of the scientific realm and rules: it is <em>political</em>. Christophe Magis ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Jan 2018 12:51:15 +0100 Anger in Academic Twitter: Sharing, Caring, and Getting Mad Online This article examines two different cases or “events” in Twitter to understand the role that negative emotions play in online discussions of academic labor. As academic labor conditions deteriorate and academics take to online spaces, they do so to critique, connect, and organize. We suggest that negative emotions may play a productive role in raising awareness of labor issues, as well as serving as a site for organizing across academic hierarchies and beyond the university. Additionally, negative emotions may fuel the production of new networks, personal, and professional connections. However, as we show, anger online can also provoke substantive repercussions, both personally and institutionally. We suggest that paying attention to the role that negative emotions play on Twitter can help academics gain a better sense of how to use their digital labor for collective action. Karen Gregory, sava saheli singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Jan 2018 13:21:36 +0100 Higher Education as a Gift and as a Commons This paper takes as a starting point Lewis Hyde’s (2007, xvi) assertion that art is a gift and not a commodity: “Works of art exist simultaneously in two ‘economies’, a market economy and a gift economy. Only one of these is essential, however: a work of art can survive without a market, but where there is no gift there is no art.” I want to argue that the same claim should be made for those aspects of academic labour that refer to teaching and education. Education can survive without a market, but where there is no gift there is no education. However the gift that is part of all educational processes gets rather obscured in regimes where higher education is either a public good or a private good. In regimes of higher education as public good the gift gets obscured by the provision of a service by the state. In regimes of higher education as a private good (e.g. higher education in the UK) the gift gets even more obscured, obviously so. It is only in a third educational regime, where education is a common good (e.g. the recent rise of the free universities), that the gift character of education can properly shine. Whilst this should be celebrated, the notion of a higher education commons poses some severe challenges. The paper ends with an examination of possibilities of academic activists to rescue or even strengthen the gift-like character of education. Andreas Wittel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Jan 2018 13:37:21 +0100 Metric Power and the Academic Self: Neoliberalism, Knowledge and Resistance in the British University This article discusses the experience of being an academic in the UK in the contemporary climate of neoliberal capitalism and ‘metric power’ (Beers 2016). Drawing on existing literature and our own practice, the first portion of the paper explores the relationship between neoliberalism, metrics and knowledge. We then examine how neoliberal mantras and instruments impact the university’s structures and processes, and reflect on consequences for the academic self. We take as a starting point the context of increasing workloads and the pressure on academics to excel in multiple roles, from ‘world-leading’ researchers to ‘excellent’ teachers and ‘service providers’ to professional administrators performing recruitment and (self)marketing tasks. Neoliberal academia, we suggest, promotes a meritocratic ideology of individual achievement that frames success and failure as purely personal ‘achievements’, which encourages a competitive ethos and chronic self-criticism. This article insists that these problems need to be understood in the context of neoliberal policy-making and the corporatisation of knowledge, including funding cuts and grant imperatives, the low status of teaching, the cynical instrumentation of university league tables, and increased institutional reliance on precarious academic labour. The article goes on to focus on responses that resist, challenge or, in some cases, compound, the problems identified in part one. Responses by dissatisfied academics range in style and approach – some decide against an academic career; others adopt a strategy of individual withdrawal within the system by trying to create and protect spaces of independence – for example, by refusing to engage beyond officially required minimums. This article argues that opportunities for positive systemic change can be found in collective efforts to oppose the status quo and to create alternatives for how academic labour is organised. Therein, solidarity can act as an instrument of opposition to the individualisation of the neoliberal academic self. Zeena Feldman, Marisol Sandoval ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Jan 2018 13:57:48 +0100 In Pursuit of an Alternative Academy: The Case of Kocaeli Academy for Solidarity (Non-Peer-Reviewed Reflection Article) After declaring a state of emergency on 20 July, 2016 as a response to the failed coup attempt of 15 July, 2016, the Turkish government launched a nation-wide academic purge, especially targeting the Academics for Peace. This group of academics signed a peace petition in January 2016 to address civilian deaths in the South-Eastern part of the country and to urge the government to take responsibility and restart the peace process. Having the largest number of peace petitioners among Turkey’s provincial universities, Kocaeli University was the first to dismiss all 19 of the peace academics from their positions on 1 September, 2016. Already active in defending the universal values of academia in other venues, these dismissed peace academics founded the Kocaeli Academy of Solidarity in pursuit of an alternative academy that aims to bring together university students, NGO members and ordinary citizens in the city in a cooperative understanding of education and research. After weekly seminars over eight months, a summer school of five days, and with applications in for funding its projects, particularly amongst others the School of Life, Kocaeli Academy for Solidarity has a strong determination to demonstrate a new democratic model of education and research. Güven Bakırezer, Derya Keskin Demirer, Adem Yeşilyurt ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Jan 2018 14:21:49 +0100